The challenge in turning this from theory to reality is to find the optimal function and parameters that maximally reduce GPU computation while maintaining highest quality visual experience. If done well, the user shouldn’t be able to tell that foveated rendering is being used. The main questions to address are:
- In what angle around the center of vision should we keep the highest resolution?
- Is there a mid-level resolution that is best to use?
- What is the drop-off in “pixel density” between central and peripheral vision?
- What is the maximum speed that the eye can move? This question is important because even though the eye is normally looking at the center of the image, the eye can potentially rotate so that the fovea is aimed at image areas with lower resolution.
1. In what angle around the center of vision should we keep the highest resolution?
2. Is there a mid-level resolution that is best to use? and 3. What is the drop-off in “pixel density” between central and peripheral vision?Some vendors such as Sensomotoric Instruments (SMI) use an inner layer at full native resolution, a middle layer at 60% resolution, and an outer layer at 20% resolution. When selecting the resolution dropoff, it is important to ensure that at the layer boundaries, the resolution is at or above the eye’s acuity at that eccentricity. At 9˚ eccentricity, acuity drops to 20% of the maximum acuity, and at 30˚ acuity drops to 7.4% of the max acuity. Given this, it appears that SMI’s values work, but are generous compared to what the eye can see.
4. What is the maximum speed that the eye can move?
|Source: Indiana University|
|Source: Vision and Ocular Motility by Gunter Noorden|
Visual acuity decreases on the temporal side (e.g. towards the ear) somewhat more rapidly than on the nasal side. It also decreases more sharply below and, especially, above the fovea, so that lines connecting points of equal visual acuity are elliptic, paralleling the outer margins of the visual field. Following this, it might make sense to render the different layers in ellipses rather than circles. The image shows the lines of equal visual acuity for the visual field of the left eye – so one can see that it extends farther to the left (temporal side) for the left eye, and for the right eye visual field would extend farther to the right.
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Note: special thanks to Emma Hafermann for her research on this post
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